Sangeeta garnered the Beauty Queen title very early in life as she was first crowned as her School Queen followed by College Queen and then went on to win Campa Princess, Bombay Harbour, Jaycees Queen, Eagle Queen and then came Miss India Universe Title in 1980. Sangeeta represented India at the Miss Universe contest in Seoul, South Korea where she won the 1st Prize for Best National Costume award designed by her mother Poonam Bijlani.
Sangeeta started her Bollywood debut in 1987 with Qatil, opposite Aditya Pancholi and then went on to do blockbusters like Tridev, Hathyar, Jurm, Yodha, Yugandhar, Izzat and Lakshman Rekha. She was spotted by Director Rajiv Rai while on the ramp in a fashion show who convinced her to join Bollywood. She also did a bilingual in Hindi & Kannada opposite popular south star Vishnu Vardhan. She was nominated by the Filmfare Awards in the Best Supporting Actress category for Jurm opposite Vinod Khanna and was directed by Mahesh Bhatt and scripted by Salim Khan. She has worked with renowned Directors like Mahesh Bhatt, Mukul Anand, J.P. Dutta, Rahul Rawail and N. Chandra.
Sangeeta and Salman Khan started dating each other in 1986 when they both were still modelling and their relationship lasted for a long 10 years. They eventually broke up. On 14 November 1996, Sangeeta married cricketer Mohammed Azharuddin at a star-studded reception at the Taj Mahal Hotel attended by the Bollywood and cricket fraternity in Mumbai. The marriage ended in a divorce in 2010 reportedly due to Azhar's alleged affair with badminton player Jwala Gutta, which was denied by the player.
In 2009 Bijlani campaigned actively for her husband Mohammed Azharuddin who was nominated from Moradabad for the Lok Sabha elections.
Born and brought up in Mumbai hailing from an educated Sindhi family, Sangeeta did her schooling from Mount Mary’s Convent High School and her college from M.M.K in Bandra, Mumbai.