Aubrey Shea Peeples was born and raised in Lake Mary, Florida, by parents Wendy and Ashley, and has a younger sister named Ally. Growing up, Aubrey performed with the Orlando Repertory Theatre for 10 years. She graduated from Lake Mary Preparatory School, where she was valedictorian of the class of 2012. Peeples was accepted to Harvard University but deferred entry twice, the second time to accept her role on Nashville.
In 2014, Peeples was cast as lead character in the romantic musical fantasy comedy-drama film Jem and the Holograms, based on the 1980s television show of the same name. The same year Peeples co-starred in the crime thriller Rage opposite Nicolas Cage. In September 2014, Peeples was named one of the best actors under the age of twenty.