Goh was born in Bukit Mertajam, Penang. She first started playing badminton at the age of 6 as a hobby before her father noticed her talent and let her train under the guidance of Teh Peng Huat, Lee Chong Wei's former coach. When she was 11, she won the national level representing her primary school. In 2013, she turned down an offer from Singapore to play for the country. She was drafted into the Malaysia national team in 2014.
In February 2015, Goh became the youngest-ever national winner at the age of 15 after defeating Lim Yin Fun in the finals of the Kuala Lumpur Open. At the 2015 Southeast Asian Games, Goh won the bronze medal in women's singles event and a silver medal in women's team event. She won her first senior title, the Belgian International at the age of 15 by defeating Kirsty Gilmour in the finals. She won her second title at the Vietnam International. At the 2015 World Junior Championships, she won the girls singles' event by defeating compatriot Lee Ying Ying in the final.
For the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, she was about to be chosen after Tee Jing Yi suffered an ankle injury in May before the player had been cleared to compete. In her first Grand Prix Gold tournament, Goh reached the finals of the Indonesian Masters before losing to top seed, Busanan Ongbamrungphan. She then lost in the semifinals of the Thailand Open to the same opponent. In December 2016, she became national No. 1 shuttler for the first time in her career after surpassing Tee Jing Yi in BWF Ranking.
In September 2017, Goh reached the final of the Singapore International which she lost to Ruselli Hartawan. At the 2017 World Junior Championships, Goh earn a silver medal in the teams event after Malaysia losing to China in the final. She claimed a bronze medal in the singles event after losing to Han Yue in the semi finals.